Homogenization is the process of reducing the particle size of fluid products such as milk, curd, lassi other milk product, under conditions of extreme pressure, sheer, turbulence, acceleration and impact, to make them more stable and have a better texture. The effect is achieved by forcing the product through a special homogenizing valve at a very high pressure. Particles enter the homogenizer with sizes ranging typically from 0.2 -20 microns. Large particles are dispersed to produce a product with particles ranging typically from 0.4 to 1 micron depending on the application.
The fat globules present in normal milk vary from 0.1 to 3 or 4 microns depending upon the breed of cows and various other factors. By homogenization, we break up the fat globules to below 2 micron sizes.