Milk Products

Homogenization is the process of reducing the particle size of fluid products such as milk, curd, lassi other milk product, under conditions of extreme pressure, sheer, turbulence, acceleration and impact, to make them more stable and have a better texture. The effect is achieved by forcing the product through a special homogenizing valve at a very high pressure. Particles enter the homogenizer with sizes ranging typically from 0.2 -20 microns. Large particles are dispersed to produce a product with particles ranging typically from 0.4 to 1 micron depending on the application.

The fat globules present in normal milk vary from 0.1 to 3 or 4 microns depending upon the breed of cows and various other factors. By homogenization, we break up the fat globules to below 2 micron sizes.

Four different forms of fat globules in milk :

  • Single globules unattached
  • Clusters, consisting of two or more globules loosely attached
  • .Clumps, consisting of two or more globules tightly clumped together so that the individual appearance of the globules is almost lost
  • Churned or butter particles in which the individual globules have lost their identity. A homogenizer should break up all the clusters, clumps and butter particles present in un-homogenized milk.

Gss High pressure homogenizer gives the highest efficiency in lowest pressure range.

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Homogenization of milk also serves the following purposes :

  • Milk becomes more digestible partly because of the smaller fat globules and partly because of the lower curd tension. The homogenized milk can be recommended for infants.
  • Increases milk viscosity, it gives richer appearance to tea or coffee.
  • Prevents cream formation
  • Reduces curd tension, i.e. forms a soft curd when homogenized milk is coagulated, i.e. milk becomes more palatable due to brighter appearance, heavier body and richer flavour
  • Reduces the chances of separation of fat during the manufacture of evaporated milk and ice-cream, it gives a smoother texture of the product.
  • Homogenizer can be used to prepare reconstituted milk by mixing butter oil or butter with skim milk
  • The milk becomes less susceptible to oxidized flavor development.
  • Fat globules do not rise readily and there is no necessity for agitating the milk before serving.
  • Prevents churning of fat during rough handling or excessive agitation